The flame thrower was invented in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) who used it against the Arab Muslims. It was later adopted by the Muslims who transmitted it to China. The Chinese author Lin Yu explained in his book in 919 AD that it was acquired by the Chinese from their Arab maritime trade contacts in the Indian Ocean. Wujing Zongyao (武经总要) written by prominent scholars Zeng Gongliang (曾公亮), Ding Du (丁度), and Yang Weide (楊惟德), in 1044 has the oldest description of the flamethrower. It is interesting to not how technology from one part of the world was transmitted to China. It also illustrates that the Muslims played an important role in transmitting knowledge not just to the West but to the East as well.