Sometimes I get the impression that all this discussion about fiqh of minority and Muslims living in non-Muslim lands is extremely short sighted especially in USA. It seems to be predicated on the unstated premise that Muslims living as minorities in non-Muslim majority countries is an unprecedented and new phenomenon and thus we have to address questions related to this phenomenon afresh as if there are no precedents. Nothing could be farther from the truth. While it is true that Muslims voluntarily leaving Muslim majority countries en masse and settling non-Muslim majority countries is a relatively new phenomenon which does not have many precedents before the 1950s, Muslims have lived in non-Muslim majority countries and have discussed questions of fiqh that we think are relevant to the situation in American Muslims before. Thus consider the following non-Muslim majority countries and how long have Muslims lived there as minorities.
China: 1350+ years
Russia: 500+ years (I am considering the time after when the fall of the Golden Horde.)
Mongolia: 750+ years
The point is that Muslims have not lived in these countries for hundreds of years without encountering or discussing some of the issues that are being discussed amongst American Muslims e.g., working in the army, relations with other religions, family related issues etc. Thus Muslims have lived in China for almost as long as the advent of Islam. There is even evidence that Muslims were employed in the service of the Chinese Emperor even as far back as the time of the Abbasids. The greatest Chinese admiral Zheng He was a Muslim. At this moment if anyone is thinking about raising any argument about Communists then let me point out that Communists are a recent phenomenon and Muslims have lived peacefully under many dynasties in China. Just because scholars in Muslim majority countries have historically have had a certain opinion about al wala and al bara does not mean that all scholars have had such an opinion. One of the reasons for this post was the discussion going on here and here. Without taking any sides in the debate I will just state that one of the arguments that people are making is that Muslims have had such an opinion for hundreds of years. While I am disputing this I would like to point out that there is another set of Muslims who have had a different opinion also for hundreds of years. Just because they lived hundreds of miles from the centers of Muslim power does not mean that their opinion is any less valid. Just because Muslims in the Middle East have historically envisioned dar-ul-Islam in a certain way (which makes sense given that the European were less than amicable towards Muslims in the Middle Ages) does not mean that Muslims in China have also done so in a similar manner.
To summarize, the point is that Muslims living in these areas have had such debates that we are having now in America, they have lived their lives as peaceful and pious Muslims. Trying to reinvent the wheel or overly relying on Muslim scholars from Muslim majority countries who almost no idea about living in non-Muslim majority countries is borderline arrogant.